The Associated Press reported today that new Type 2 diabetes drug created in a joint effort between Eli Lilly and Boehringer Ingelheim has been approved by regulators.
Linagliptin, which is sold in the United States under the trade name Trajenta, is a DPP-4 inhibitor that prevents the degradation of of incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP. Both hormones increase insulin secretion in the presence of elevated blood glucose levels and reduce liver glucose output via a reduction in glucagon secretion by the pancreas. The drug is a once-daily oral medication.
The FDA approved Trajenta in May after a study involving 4,000 participants with type 2 diabetes confirmed linagliptin lowered blood glucose levels either as monotherapy or in conjunction with existing diabetes care. The drug did not cause increases in bodyweight common to other diabetes medication, and did not impair normal renal function indicating excretion may not be independent of the kidneys.
Affecting over 20 million Americans, type 2 diabetes is characterized by the inability to break down carbohydrates in the body due to insulin resistance, and is a contributing factor in obesity, heart disease, blindness, circulatory problems, and kidney complications. Early detection is vital for diabetes management and preventing the progression of the disease.
Like any other woman, Diabetics have to take certain precautions during pregnancy, but with the right diet and a little extra attention, there is no reason why you should not have a perfectly healthy child. All the usual advice applies, such as eating a healthy, well balanced diet, avoiding drinking and smoking and making sure you take the correct vitamins.
Once you are pregnant it is important to maintain your blood glucose at near normal levels, especially in the early stages, when your baby is growing most rapidly. You run the highest chance of miscarriage during this phase and high glucose levels can increase the risk of complications. Your doctor will be able to advise you on a suitable meal plan.
Sufferers taking hypoglycaemic medication or controlling their condition through diet and exercise will be moved to insulin injections and you will need to adjust to this by monitoring your body’s glucose levels carefully. Gradually, over the course of your pregnancy your need for insulin will increase. You can help regulate it by sticking to an agreed meal plan and learning to adjust your jabs as required.
Food intake is especially important during pregnancy; after all, you are controlling both the nutrition and glucose levels of two people now and you will have to accommodate your food intake accordingly, increasing your daily intake by around 300 calories.
Over the course of your pregnancy you will become an expert in controlling your blood sugar levels and it is important throughout never to miss meals and snack breaks. If you suffer from morning sickness contact your doctor immediately, and if sticking to three large meals a day becomes uncomfortable, split them into six or even eight smaller servings.
Your doctor will know exactly how you need to manage your condition over the course of your pregnancy and be able to advise you throughout.
The last twenty years have seen radical advances in the treatment of diabetes, meaning the disease no longer acts a precursor to painful and life threatening complications such as blindness, amputation and kidney failure. Aided by modern science people with diabetes can now expect to lead long, rewarding lives, and these advances continue to accelerate as the disease becomes more widespread.
Much emphasis and research continues to surround the role of insulin in Type 2 diabetes, the most frequently occurring form of the condition. In particular, scientists are studying the relationship between energy created at a muscular level and its response to insulin generation in relation to impaired phosphate movement, as an early stage symptom of diabetes. This research is helping us to understand the problems of weight management among many insulin-resistant sufferers, who appear to have a lower calorific requirement than the rest of the population.
Insulin delivery is also the subject of much research and new implantable insulin delivery capsules are at an advanced stage. When commercially available these tiny pumps will be capable of measuring blood sugar levels and releasing exact quantities of insulin, mimicking natural delivery methods. Early progress in using the body’s own nutrients, to create insulin, means their life spans could be indefinite once biocompatibility issues can be overcome and the body prevented from attacking such devices.
The development of insulin inhalers is currently being fast tracked in clinical trials and could be used to deliver amounts of the compound through the mouth. While they may not completely eradicate the necessity for daily injections they will deliver a rapid amount of insulin to the bloodstream
With so much research underway including vaccines, cell transplants and gene therapy the lives of the 20 million Americans living with diabetes are set to be vastly improved over the next decade.